1a Read the following essay and underline the writer's suggestions and expected results.
Certain species of animals have become extinct and many more are now endangered. We all know that humans are the biggest threat to the survival of most animals. People hunt, kill and pollute the habitats of a great number of species. So what can we do to help them survive?
To start with, it is important to make the destruction of animals' habitats illegal. Next, people who hunt animals illegally must face heavy fines and even long-term prison sentences. If these measures were in place, they would discourage people from committing such acts. Thus, this would protect both animals and the environments they live in. Another solution would be to encourage people not to buy animal products. As a result, manufactures would produce fewer products made with the fur. skin or teeth of endangered species and other animals.
Finally, it would be a good idea to create more national parks and protected habitats for endangered animals. This would allow them to live and breed in a safe environment. Therefore, their numbers would increase and the species would not disappear.
To sum up, there are many ways to make the world a safer place for animals. Putting some of these ideas into action would definitely make life better for all in the animal kingdom.
a) Suggestions = the following sentences:
- 'To start with ... illegal.'
- 'Next, people ... sentences.'
- 'Another solution ... products.'
- 'Finally, it would ... animals.'
Expected results = the following sentences:
- If these measures ... acts.'
- 'Thus ... in.'
- 'As a result ... animals.'
- 'This would allow ... environment.'
- 'Therefore ... disappear.'
- 'Putting some ... kingdom.'
1b Put the linkers that are in bold, in the text, under the following headings.
1 To introduce suggestions: ...to start with, another solution would be to.
2 To express effect: ...thus, as a result, therefore.
3 To conclude: ...to sum up.
1c Replace the linkers in bold with synonyms.
1 To start with = To begin with
2 Thus = As a result
3 Another solution would be to = Another way would be to
4 As a result = Consequently
5 Therefore = So
6 To sum up = All things considered