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Isaac Newton was one of the most important scientists who ever lived.
He was born on 25 December, 1642, in Woolsthorpe. His father died before Newton was born and his mother remarried. Newton went to live with his grandmother. He went to a grammar school, where he wasn't a very good pupil. Luckily one of the teachers spotted that he had a bright mind and recommended that he go to university. So Newton went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was going to study law.
One day he went to a fair and bought a book on mathematics. Newton hadn't read any books on mathematics and physics before and got very interested in these subjects. Soon he became one of the best students in the university. He spent most of his life in Cambridge.
Newton became a world-famous physicist, mathematician, and natural philosopher. He took facts and mathematical theories and explained them. He formulated laws of universal gravitation and motion that explain how objects move on the Earth and in the sky. He made discoveries in optics and built the first reflecting telescope. He invented an area of mathematics called calculus and wrote a lot of books.
Florence Nightingale got her name from the city of Florence. At that time women didn't work. They served tea and gave parties. Florence didn't like this lifestyle. She was interested in books and medicine and wanted to go to university. At first her family was against it, but after many emotional battles her father agreed. She got a good education in Germany and started to work in a hospital when she came back to England.
March 1854 brought the start of the Crimean War when Britain, France and Turkey declared war on Russia. Florence Nightingale left England and became a nursing administrator of the English General Hospitals in Turkey. She took 38 other nurses with her. Together they went to battlefields and organized hospitals. The wounded soldiers called her an angel because at night she went from one bed to another with a lamp.
Florence Nightingale has stayed in history as "the Lady with the Lamp", the first professional nurse who saved thousands of lives.