1. I've brought you the book which I've been reading lately. 2. Meet my friend Jim, who has just arrived from London. 3. Most of all I liked the biscuits which tasted of vanilla. 4. Martin, who visits us from time to time, tells us all the local news. 5. We chose the table which stood at the window to admire the view of the Seine. 6. Have you seen the new film which all people are talking about? 7. The picture, which was hanging above the fireplace, reminded me of something long-forgotten. 8. She says she would like to marry a man who is like her father. 9. She was stirring the stew which was boiling in a big pan on the gas cooker. 10. He put down the newspaper, which he had been reading, and got to his feet.
Focus on Syntax
RELATIVE CLAUSES (continued)
Sometimes a relative clause refers not just to the noun before it, but to the whole sentence before. Compare:
1. John wrote to me the letter that upset me.
2. John tore my letter up, which upset me.
In the first sentence it was the letter that was upsetting. The relative clause refers to the noun letter. In the second sentence the fact that John tore the letter up was upsetting. The relative clause (which upset me) refers to the whole sentence. In cases like this, which is always used (that and what are impossible), and there is always a comma.
James shouted at the top of his voice, which shocked me.